(One Nation, One Goal, One Faith)
Republic of Mali
22 September (1960)
Caravan routes have passed through Mali since A.D. 300. The Malinke empire ruled regions of Mali from the 12th to the 16th century, and the Songhai empire reigned over the Timbuktu-Gao region in the 15th century. Morocco conquered Timbuktu in 1591 and ruled over it for two centuries. Subjugated by France by the end of the 19th century, the land became a colony in 1904 (named French Sudan in 1920) and in 1946 became part of the French Union. On June 20, 1960, it became independent and, under the name of Sudanese Republic, was joined with the Republic of Senegal in the Mali federation...[+]
Bambara, Malinke, Soninke, Peuhl, Dogon, Songhoi, Minianka, Senoufo, Khassonke, Bobo, Tamasheq
Semi-presidential system of Government. The President and the Assembly are elected by universal suffrage. The Government, led by a prime Minister, is accountable to the National Assembly.